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National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB)

A. Image-Guided Interventions. Research on use of images for guidance, navigation and orientation in minimally invasive procedures to reach specified targets. Examples include image-guided interventions for minimally invasive therapies such as surgery and radiation treatment, for biopsies, and for the delivery of drugs, genes and therapeutic devices.
B. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy. Development of MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging, for both animal and human research, and potential clinical applications. Examples include (but are not restricted to) fast imaging, high field imaging, design of novel RF and gradient coils, novel pulse sequences, design of novel contrast mechanisms, imaging informatics, in vivo EPR imaging, molecular imaging, etc. The emphasis should be on technological development rather than detailed applications to specific diseases or organs.
C. Medical Devices and Implant Science. Design, development, evaluation and validation of medical devices and implants. This includes exploratory research on next generation concepts for diagnostic and therapeutic devices; development of tools for assessing host-implant interactions; studies to prevent adverse events; development of predictive models and methods to assess the useful life of devices; explant analysis; improved in vitro and animal models for device testing and validation.
D. Micro- and Nano-Systems, Platform Technologies. Development of BioMEMS, microfluidics and nanoscale technologies, including micro-total analysis systems, arrays, and biochips, for detection and quantitation of clinically relevant analytes in complex matrices. Application areas include biomedical research, clinical laboratory diagnostics, biodefense, high-throughput screening, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and implantable devices, among others.
E. Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy. Development and application of optical imaging, microscopy, and spectroscopy techniques; and development and application of optical imaging contrasts. Examples of research areas include fluorescence imaging, bioluminescence imaging, OCT, SHG, IR imaging, diffuse optical tomography, optical microscopy and spectroscopy, confocal microscopy, multiphoton microscopy, flow cytometry, development of innovative light sources and fiber optic imaging devices.
F. Telehealth. Development of software and hardware for telehealth studies that have broad applications as well as early stage development of telehealth technologies that may have specific focus areas. Research that is supported includes methods to address usability and implementation issues in remote settings, and methods to develop technology for standardizing and incorporating state of the art security protocols for verifying user identities and preserving patient confidentiality across remote access.
G. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Development of enabling technologies including real-time, non-invasive tools for assessing the function of engineered tissues; real-time assays that monitor the interaction of cells and their environment at the molecular and organelle level; predictive computational models for engineering function 3D tissues; high-throughput assays and instruments to reduce the cost, time, and complexity of tissue engineering; novel bioreactor techniques for expanding stem cells and growing tissues and organs on a large scale; and strategies for preserving, sterilizing, packaging, and transporting living-tissue products. The program also supports applications of rational engineering design principles to functional engineered tissues; the development of novel biomaterials for use as tissue scaffolds that mimic the extracellular matrix and support multiple cell types in defined spatial orientation; and engineering approaches to study how biomaterials interact with cells and guide cell growth, differentiation, and migration.
H. Ultrasound. Improvement of technologies for diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic uses of ultrasound. The diagnostic ultrasound program includes, but is not limited to the design, development and construction of transducers, transducer arrays, and transducer materials, innovative image acquisition and display methods, innovative signal processing methods and devices, and optoacoustic and thermoacoustic technology. It also includes the development of image-enhancement devices and methods, such as contrast agents, image and data presentation and mapping methods, such as functional imaging and image fusion. The interventional ultrasound program includes the use of ultrasound for therapeutic use, or as an adjunct for enhancement of non-ultrasound therapy applications. Examples include, but are not limited to, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as a non-invasive or minimally invasive interventional surgical or therapy tool, and as an adjunct interventional tool. It also includes the use of ultrasound contrast agents for therapy and for targeted drug delivery, and the use of ultrasound for image-guided surgery, biopsy, and other interventions.

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