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National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation (DAIT)
A. Allergy, Asthma and Airway Biology Branch will consider preclinical and clinical research for conditions of interest: asthma, food allergy, eosinophilic esophagitis and gastroenteritis in relation to food allergy, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, drug allergy, and sepsis. This includes but is not limited to the development of methodologies to manage, and analyze clinical and epidemiologic research in the above conditions and the development of biomarkers as diagnostic markers, markers of disease severity, predictive markers for treatment effectiveness, particularly of immunologic interventions such as allergen immunotherapy for food and respiratory allergy; novel approaches for detecting infants at risk for developing asthma and other allergic diseases; immune targets for asthma and allergic disease interventions; development of immunotherapies to prevent or treat allergic diseases; development of new reagents and non-murine animal models for allergy research.
B. Basic Immunology Branch will consider preclinical and clinical research to develop the origin, maturation, and interactions of immune cells, immune cell receptors, ligands, cytokine biology, molecular basis of activation, antigen recognition, immune tolerance, immune response regulation, hematopoiesis and stem cell biology, enhancement of vaccine effectiveness in neonates and adults, and basic immunology of vaccines and immunotherapeutics as medical countermeasures for biodefense. This includes but is not limited to development of novel vaccine adjuvants; single cell assays to isolate and study allergen-specific lymphocytes; immunotherapeutic antibodies; biomarkers of host immune defense; single cell and other sample-sparing assays for study of human immunology.
C. Autoimmunity and Mucosal Immunology Branch will consider preclinical and clinical research to develop and improve therapies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, primary immune deficiencies (not HIV), basic research of disease mechanisms, and biomarkers, immunotherapy of disease processes, disorders mediated by lymphocyte products, and mucosal immunity. This includes but is not limited to innovative treatments for autoimmune diseases; standardized validated diagnostic criteria and outcome measures for autoimmune diseases correlated with disease activity; high throughput assay of T-cell activity in autoimmune diseases; biomarkers to measure risk, disease activity, and therapeutic response in autoimmune diseases; innovative treatments for autoimmune diseases; mucosal immunity.
D. Transplantation Branch will consider preclinical and clinical research in organ, vascularized composite tissue and cellular transplantation: acute and chronic graft rejection, allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation, development of immunomodulatory agents to prevent and treat graft rejection and to promote acute and long term graft acceptance and immunologic tolerance, genomics of the alloimmune response, graft versus host disease and engraftment for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, minor histocompatibility antigens, complications of immunosuppression in transplantation, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region genomics and technologies for MHC typing. This includes but is not limited to methods and analysis tools to facilitate high throughput, high resolution MHC typing in humans and non-human primates.
E. Radiation Countermeasures Program will consider preclinical research on the identification and evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCMs) for public health radiation emergencies through the development of mitigators and therapeutics for acute radiation syndrome or the delayed effects of acute radiation exposure; radionuclide-specific therapies, including chelating agents, blocking agents, and other novel decorporation agents; improved methods of accurate and high-throughput radiation biodosimetry and bioassays for radionuclide contamination; biomarkers of organ-specific radiation injury; therapeutics for radiation combined injury; therapeutics for radiation-induced immunosenescence; and formulations for pediatric administration. This includes but is not limited to the development of medical countermeasures to protect against, mitigate, and treat the short- and long-term effects of radiation exposure due to terrorist attack; development of novel or improved decorporation agents to remove radionuclides from the body following accidental inhalation, ingestion or wound entry; identification of radiation exposure biomarkers and development of new biodosimetry methods and devices for triage of radiation-exposed people.
Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID)
A. Identify and qualify infectious disease-related biomarkers, including:
1. Biomarkers to predict susceptibility to infection and/or diagnose an infectious disease.
2. Biomarkers to predict or monitor a subject?s response to therapeutics or vaccinations.
3. Biomarkers from natural history studies that could be used to assess disease progression in acute and chronic diseases.
B. Development of rapid, highly sensitive and specific clinical diagnostics that are easy to use, cost-effective and can diagnose individuals infected with pathogens or individuals that have been exposed to toxins.
C. Development of vaccines for infectious diseases.
D. Development of vaccine enhancement and formulation technologies with the goal of providing protection against infectious disease agents, providing accelerated immune responses (more rapid schedules or reduced number of immunizations), increase ease of administration (i.e., self-administration), and increase product stability to minimize cold chain requirements.
E. Discovery and development of therapeutics for infectious diseases.
Division of AIDS (DAIDS)
A. Development of anti-HIV agents directed at new viral or cellular targets, including development and in vivo evaluation of sustained release formulations for treatment of HIV infection.
B. Development and evaluation of therapeutic vaccines and other immune-based therapies to attenuate HIV disease progression or reduce HIV infectiousness.
C. Development of therapeutic strategies for curing HIV infection or effecting a sustained remission in the absence of daily antiretroviral drug therapy.
D. Development of methods for detecting and quantifying persistent reservoirs of replication competent latent HIV in blood and tissues, including bio-imaging.
E. Development and evaluation of practical and affordable tests to measure viral load, CD4+ cell counts, drug toxicities and drug resistance to monitor populations infected with HIV and associated infectious agents in resource-poor settings. Development of tests to detect early infection in seropositive HIV-infected individuals and to determine HIV incidence (HIV infection before seroconversion).
F. Discovery and development of agents or strategies for Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Development of pharmacological tools to examine PK/PD in fluids and tissue, new formulation and delivery systems for coitally-dissociated use, and optimization of animal models for screening of candidate agents.
G. Development of rapid tests for the detection of ARTs in various human matrices (e.g. blood, urine, hair).
H. Formulation, manufacturing, characterization and evaluation of novel vaccine adjuvants.
I. Evaluation of immune responses to HIV vaccines and vaccine vectors.
J. Development of formulation technologies to prevent or treat HIV and HIV-associated co-infections.

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